Test Description

Test Description

  Kinematic Viscosity

Kinematic Viscosity is a measurement of the resistance of the oil to flow through a capillary tube of the viscometer. It is the most fundamental property of a lubricant. Viscosity of lubricants is measured in case of fresh oils to check the Grade of the oil . in case of used oils it gives idea about change in physical properties due to oxidation, dilution or any external contamination. It is the most fundamental property for testing of any lubricant or petroleum product.

Methods Adopted by Chem-Tech for Viscosity Determination:

  • ASTM D 445
  • ASTM D 7042
  • IS 1448 P 25
  Total Base Number

Total Base Number determines the amount of alkaline / basic component present in Oil. Its is a very fundamental test for Engine Lubricants. It determines the ability of oil to neutralize acids generated in the oil due to Oxidation, Combustion by products or external contamination.

Methods adopted by Chem-Tech Laboratories for Base Number Analysis:

  • ASTM D 2896
  • ASTM D 4739
  • IS 1448 P 2
  • IS 1448 P 86
  Total Acid Number

Total Acid Number determines the amount of acid present in the lubricant. Acidity of the lubricant increases due to the stresses or environmental factors affecting the lubricant. Excess amount of acid in the lubricant will lead to corrosion or failure of equipment.

Methods adopted by Chem-Tech Laboratories for Acid Number Analysis:

  • ASTM D 664
  • ASTM D 974
  • IS 1448 P 1 Sec 1
  Soot Content

Soot Content is the measurement of carbon / sooty particles generated due to incomplete combustion of fuel. Higher Soot generation leads to degradation of Oil.

Methods adopted by Chem-Tech for Soot Content Determination:

  • Soot Content by FTIR
  • Soot Content by Sootmeter
  Water Content

Water or Moisture is the most common contaminant in any lubricant or petroleum product. Monitoring the level water in sample is of prime importance to avoid malfunctioning of the equipment or machine.

Water content in petroleum products can be determined by following 4 test methods:

  • Water Content by Crackle Test
  • Water content by Distillation (Dean & Stark Method)
  • Water Content by Karl Fischer – Volumetric Method
  • Water Content by Karl Fischer – Coulometric Method

Methods Adopted by Chem-Tech for Water / Moisture Content Determination:

  • Crackle – Chem-Tech Laboratories Procedure
  • ASTM D 95
  • ASTM D 1744
  • ASTM D 6304
  • ASTM D 1533
  • IS 1448 P 40
  Ferrography

Ferrography or Wear debris analysis determines the type of wearing and analyses sample for wear pattern, size and shape of wear elements and also any external contaminants present in a lubricant. Ferrography gives lot of information on the functioning of the equipment. Abnormal wear pattern may indicate possible failure of equipment, improper film forming capacity of oil, inappropriate type and quality of oil used.

  Density

Density is fundamental characteristic of any petroleum product. It is the measurement of weight per volume of the sample.

It is measured by:

  • Density by Pyknometer
  • Density by Hydrometer
  • Density by Auto Density Meter

Methods Adopted by Chem-Tech for Density Determination:

  • ASTM D 4052
  • ASTM D 1298
  • IS 1448 P 32
  • IS 1448 P 16
  Flash Point

Flash Point is the lowest temperature at which the vapours of the petroleum product catches fire momentarily in presence of air when an ignition source is applied to the sample.

Flash point are normally conducted by three methods:

  • Cleaveland Open Cup Method ( Range: 69 deg C to 370 Deg C)
  • Pensky Martins Closed Cup Method ( Range : 40 deg C to 370 Deg C)
  • Abel Closed Cup Method

Methods Adopted by Chem-Tech for Flash Point Determination:

  • Cleaveland Open Cup
    • ASTM D 92
    • IS 1448 P 69
  • Pensky Martens Closed Cup
    • ASTM D 93
    • IS 1448 P 20
    • IS 1448 P 21
  Oxidation

Oxidation measurement by FTIR is the measurement of degradation of Oil due to the operating conditions of the equipment and breakdown of additives in the Lubricant or Oil. Increase in Oxidation directly affects the acidity of the oil. Increase in the Oxidation of Oil increases the acidity of the lubricant.

Methods adopted by Chem-Tech Laboratories for Oxidation Analysis:

  • ASTM E 2412
  Nitration

Nitration is similar to oxidation. Nitration results from the reaction of oil components with Nitrogen Oxides that are produced from the oxidation of atmospheric nitrogen during the combustion process. In addition to causing oil thickening, nitration products are the major cause of the build-up of varnish or lacquer on engine parts. Increase in Oxidation or nitration will lead to Increase in Acid Number, Viscosity and in turn will decrease the Base Number Of the Oil and breakdown of the additives.

Methods adopted by Chem-Tech Laboratories for Nitration Analysis:

  • ASTM E 2412
  Sulphation

Sulphation indicates the formation of Sulphur Byproducts that are formed due to the combustion process in the Equipment. These products are mainly formed due the Sulphur content that is present in th Fuel. Higher value may indicates increase in the Acid number of oil which will be corrosive to the surfaces.

Methods adopted by Chem-Tech Laboratories for Sulphation Analysis:

  • ASTM E 2412
  Elemental Analysis

Elemental Analysis by ICP determines the amount of Wear metals , Contaminant Metals and Additive Metals present in a Lubricant. Elemental Analysis can detect upto 24 elements in the lubricant. These includes all the particles present in oil upto 5-10 microns in size.

It gives an idea about the amount of Wear and Contamination in the Lubricant. It is one of the primary tests conducted for Trend Analysis or Predictive Maintenance of the Equipment.

Test Methods adopted by Chem-Tech for Elemental Analysis:

  • ASTM D 5185
  Particle Count

Particle count test determines the particle size and size distribution of the contaminants or wear particles present in oil. It is a very fundamental test to determine the amount of contamination present in oil . This method measures all types of particles which includes wear, dirt , debris, fibres, bacterial growth etc. This test is mainly performed on filtered systems to monitor filter efficiency and cleanliness of oil.

The result of the test is formulated with respect to the standard test method ISO 4406, NAS 1638 or SAE.

Methods Adopted by Chem-Tech for Particle Count Determination:

  • NAS 1638
  • ISO 4406
  Foaming

Foaming Characteristics determines the ability of lubricant to foam . This test is performed at specific temperature and time. Compressed air is blown through the sample, which results in foam formation, this is allowed to settle and volume of foam remaining is reported with respect to the test method.

Methods adopted by Chem-Tech for Determination of Foaming Characteristics:

  • ASTM D 892
  Demulsibility

Demulsibility Test for lubricants determines the lubricants ability to separate from water.

This test method provides a guide for determining the water separation characteristics of oils subject to water contamination and turbulence.

Methods adopted by Chem-Tech for Determination of Demulsibility:

  • ASTM D 1401
  Air Release Value

Air Release Value Test determines the lubricants ability to separate from entrained air. Agitation of lubricating oil with air in equipment, such as bearings, couplings, gears, pumps, and oil return lines, may produce a dispersion of finely divided air bubbles in the oil. If the residence time in the reservoir is too short to allow the air bubbles to rise to the oil surface, a mixture of air and oil will circulate through the lubricating oil system. This may result in an inability to maintain oil pressure (particularly with centrifugal pumps), incomplete oil films in bearings and gears, and poor hydraulic system performance or failure.

Methods adopted by Chem-Tech for Determination of Air Release Value:

  • ASTM D 3427
  Conradson Carbon Residue

Conradson Carbon Residue Test covers the determination of the amount of carbon residue left after evaporation and pyrolysis of an oil. This test is intended to provide some indication of relative coke-forming properties of Lubricant.

Methods adopted by Chem-Tech for Determination of Conradson Carbon Residue:

  • ASTM D 189
  Ash Content

This test method covers the determination of ash in the range 0.001–0.180 mass %, from distillate and residual fuels, gas turbine fuels, crude oils, lubricating oils, waxes, and other petroleum products, in which any ash-forming materials present are normally considered to be undesirable impurities or contaminants . The test method is limited to petroleum products which are free from added ash-forming additives, including certain phosphorus compounds and Organo Metallic Additives.

Ash can result from oil or water-soluble metallic compounds or from extraneous solids such as dirt and rust.

Methods adopted by Chem-Tech for Determination of Ash Content:

  • ASTM D 482
  Sulphated Ash Content

Sulphates Ash Content Test is Conducted on unused lubricating oils containing additives to approximately determine the amount of additives present in the lubricant. These additives usually contain one or more of the following metals barium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, potassium, sodium. The elements sulfur, phosphorus, and chlorine can also be present in combined form. These elements are converted to their oxides and sulphates which in total is the sulfated ash in the sample.

Methods adopted by Chem-Tech for Determination of Sulphated Ash Content:

  • ASTM D 874
  Sediments

This test determines the total sediments present in petroleum . This is a Chem-Tech Laboratories validated method, It is modification of ASTM D 893 for determination of Total Insoluble content in Toluene. It is a centrifugal method for determination of Insoluble content.

It determines wear metals, dirt dust and debris present in petroleum products & Lubricants.

  Pentane Insoluble Content

This test determines the amount of pentane insoluble content in the lubricating oil. Pentane Insoluble’s can include oil-insoluble materials and some oil-insoluble resinous matter originating from oil or additive degradation, or both. These also Includes oxidation products, wear elements and Dirt.

These Insolubles measured can also assist in evaluating the performance characteristics of a used oil or in determining the cause of equipment failure.

Higher amount of Pentane Insoluble content may lead to failure of equipment.

Methods adopted by Chem-Tech for Determination of Pentane Insoluble Content:

  • ASTM D 893
  Toluene Insoluble Content

This test determines the amount of Toluene insoluble content in the lubricating oil. Toluene Insoluble materials can come from external contamination, fuel carbon and highly carbonized materials from degradation of fuel, oil, and additives or engine wear. Toluene Insolubles is the insoluble content remaining in oil once pentane Insoluble’s are diluted with toluene and centrifuged.

These Insolubles measured can also assist in evaluating the performance characteristics of a used oil or in determining the cause of equipment failure.

Higher amount of Pentane Insoluble content may lead to failure of equipment.

Methods adopted by Chem-Tech for Determination of Toluene Insoluble Content:

  • ASTM D 893
  PQ Index

PQ index determines the amount of ferrous debris in a lubricant. This is a very useful method for trend analysis and predictive maintenance of Equipments and machines. This method is not an absolute measurement of ferrous debris, it only gives indication about the amount of ferrous debris present in oil.

In this method the oil sample is exposed to magnetic field and amount of magnetic flux generated in calculated in manufacturer units.

This method is always used in conjunction with Elemental analysis, Particle Count or Ferrography Tests.

  Distillation Recovery

Distillation Recovery Test is a characteristic test for every Distillate Fuel Sample. It determines the boiling range of the Fuel. As distillate fuels have different boiling ranges the boiling range gives information on the composition, the properties, and the behavior of the fuel during storage and use. The distillation (volatility) characteristics of hydrocarbons have an important effect on their safety and performance, especially in the case of fuels and solvents.

Volatility is the major determinant of the tendency of a hydrocarbon mixture to produce potentially explosive vapors.

Methods adopted by Chem-Tech for Determination of Toluene Insoluble Content:

  • ASTM D 86
  Ramsbottom Carbon Residue

Ramsbottom Carbon Residue Test Determines the amount of carbon residue left after evaporation and pyrolysis of an oil, and it is intended to provide some indication of relative coke-forming propensity. This test method is generally applicable to relatively nonvolatile petroleum products which partially decompose on distillation at atmospheric pressure.

Methods adopted by Chem-Tech for Determination of Toluene Insoluble Content:

  • ASTM D 524
  Cetane Index

Cetane Index is a calculation method used to determine the quality of Diesel Fuels. Diesel engine operation is primarily related to the actual cetane number and the cetane index is simply an estimation of the base (unadditized) cetane number.

Methods adopted by Chem-Tech for Determination of Toluene Insoluble Content:

  • ASTM D 4737
  Gross Calorific Value

Gross Calorific Value is determination of amount energy generated when fuels are burned in presence of Oxygen Environment. It is the amount of heat released during the combustion process for a specific amount of Fuel.

Methods adopted by Chem-Tech for Determination of Toluene Insoluble Content:

  • ASTM D 240
  Sulphur Content

Sulphur Content determines the amount of Sulphur present in an Lubricant and Fuel samples. Higher amount of sulphur content in fuels will lead to higher SOX emissions and lead to adverse effects and problems with government regulations.

Methods adopted by Chem-Tech for Determination of Sulphur Content:

  • ASTM D 4294
  • ASTM D 5453
  • ASTM D 129
  Cold Filter Plugging Point

Cold filter plugging point (CFPP) is the lowest temperature, expressed in °C, at which a given volume of diesel type of fuel still passes through a standardized filtration device in a specified time when cooled under certain conditions. This test gives an estimate for the lowest temperature that a fuel will give trouble free flow in certain fuel systems. This is important as in cold temperate countries, a high cold filter plugging point will clog up vehicle engines more easily.

Methods adopted by Chem-Tech for Determination of Cold Filter Plugging Point Test:

  • ASTM D 6371